After being slowed down by torrential rains in May, the river crossing was completed in June.
Concrete encasement for river crossing
The concrete encased pipes are built as a concrete beam when crossing the river and is supported by concrete pillars set in the river that serve as caissons.
Concrete encasement and beams crossing river
A water system can cost hundred of thousands of dollars and needs to be built to survive hurricanes and earthquakes. Locally produced gravel and concrete are used with proven construction techniques for these conditions.
Closeup of reinforced concrete for river crossing
Normally, the lack of rain is hardship but when capping a spring, it’s a blessing. NW Haiti has been a five month drought but this has helped the spring capping at Source Lanon to proceed. During drought from November 2013 to the end of April 2014 a lot of work was done on the pipeline and spring capping. The effect of the torrential rains that eventually flooded the work in progress at the first river crossing is shown below.
Flooded trench at the first river crossing
It took repeated attempts and digging out and cleaning up to get concrete and pipes across the river.
Draining flooded trench
Notice the concrete forms barely sticking out of water.
Flooded concrete encasement
After the trenches were drained from the rains, the pipes were covered in concrete for the river crossing.
The pipe is ready for concrete near Source Lanon. In the photo below, notice the
marks from jackhammer on the rock walls. This is one of the things that made the spring capping such a challenge. In some places near the source, the men had to jackhammer the trench five feet wide and fourteen feet deep in rock while in other places had to dig in dangerously soft and wet ground.
Pipe laid near the spring source in a trench dug entirely by jackhammer
There are no big concrete mixer trucks in this region of Haiti. Concrete is mixed in small machines and transported into the trench bucket by bucket.
Pouring concrete around pipes near Source Lanon September 2013